Building structure demonstrates the skeleton or the framework of a building. It comprises beams, columns, walls, slabs, foundations, and roof trusses. 

Furthermore, it also determines the strength, stability, durability, and safety of a building.

There are various types of building structures and, in this blog, we are going to see them. 

9 Types of Building Structures

  1. Load Bearing Building Structure

Load-bearing building structures distribute weight to the walls by the use of floors and roofs using materials like concrete blocks or bricks. Here the laborers themselves lay all the materials such as concrete blocks, bricks, etc.

As a result of the load-bearing function, the number of floors increases comparatively, which results in increased wall thickness and reduced carpet area. This type of structure is ideal for large-scale construction projects.

Some advantages of Load-bearing building structure

  • The load-bearing structure is comparatively strong and sturdy
  • This structure is cost-effective
  • Has got excellent fire resistance aid
  • Materials are easily available
  • Do not require need for planning
  • Uses only affordable machinery and tools

Disadvantages of Load-bearing building structure

  • Performs poorly during an earthquake
  • They prefer a substantial number of masonry units as masonry work requires great time and more work
  • The structure typically weighs more
  • The heat-insulating capabilities of these buildings are quite subpar.

  1.  Truss Structure

Truss is a type of structure with a broad span and shallow depth. It is visible in a triangular pattern with thin pieces. Pieces that are three-dimensional make a space truss.

One of the main benefits is that the truss utilizes less material than the beam due to these benefits, and it has long and narrow portions. Truss structure can usually span areas between 9 and 122 meters. 

  1. Framed Structure

Framed structures comprise both vertical and horizontal components. Here, the horizontal members are known as beams, whereas the vertical components are columns.

The two most commonly used types of frames are sway and non-sway frames. 

A non-sway frame does not permit horizontal movement, only lateral or sideward movement. In their analysis, the sway frames’ lateral movement is taken into consideration. Both stiff and flexible frames are possible.

  1. Shell Structure

Shell structure is a thin, curved plate construction that applies forces through compressive, tensile, and shear stresses operating in the surface plane.

This structure uses materials that have a restricted depth in comparison to other dimensions.

The surface structure may take the form of an inflatable structure or a tent, depending on the situation; in both cases, the surface material functions as a membrane under pure stress.

Shell Structures can look like a cylinder, a folded plate, or another object. What’s more, this building structure can sustain loads in both tension and compression with a little degree of bending.

There are three main types of shell structures.

  • Concrete Shell Structures

A building structure made of a relatively thin concrete shell, also known as a thin shell concrete structure, typically lacks interior columns and exterior buttresses.

  • Lattice or Grid Shell Structures

Grid shells are long-span building structures comprising a lattice of single-layer elements that create a curved surface. Steel and wood are only two of the many materials that you can use to create grid shells.

  • Membrane Structures

Constructors use membranes to create cable domes, pneumatic structures, and tensile membrane structures. They also use Tensioned membranes to create membrane structures, which are spatial constructions.

Membranes collaborate with cables, columns, and other building components in these three types of structures to discover a form.

  1. Cables and Arch Structures

Most constructors use cables and arch structures in situations where trusses are impractical. Here, cables support long spans, which significantly raises the structure’s cost and size. They are suitable for spans greater than 46 meters and can support loads in tension.

Hence, it’s significantly used in bridge construction, and the sag, weight, and anchorage techniques of cables place restrictions on their use.

  1. Composite Building Structure

A composite building structure is a combination of a Load-bearing building structure and a frame structure. Exterior walls can be load-bearing building structures whereas internal column, and beam systems support floors and ceilings respectively.

Advantages of Composite Building Structure

  • Electricity and heat are not a matter of subject for composite structure
  • They are used to install and are carryable as they are lower in weight
  • These structures are adaptable and engineers can create structures.

Disadvantages of Composite Building Structure

  • Highly cost-effective 
  • Building requires the utilization of skilled laborers. 

  1. Tensile Structures

Columns, often referred to as struts or stanchions, are vertical structural elements that are squeezed axially. Along with normal sections, columns can also have cross sections that are rounded, square, or rectangular.

In some technical applications where a single-member strength would not be adequate to bear a specific load, built-up columns are used.A built-up column is made up of two or more regular sections. Similar to columns, stress structures are susceptible to axial tension.

  1. Pre-Engineered Building Structure

Often pre-engineered building structures are the best option because they are simple to assemble and enable you to use a building sooner than you had anticipated.

Frequently, the building structure can be designed to your specifications, and the pieces are then constructed and assembled before being transported to the construction site.Your design must be square or rectangular, and they are regrettably highly expensive compared to other building styles.

Advantages of Pre-Engineered Structure

  • It makes construction quick
  • It’s quick to assemble
  • It’s easy to customize
  • It’s robust
  • It is easy to produce and design
  • It is supportable to carry necessary loads

  1. Mass Structure

Mass structures are made of a substance that fills the body in clumps. Although it’s constructed using inferior materials, these are fairly thick. They are created by piling materials in a certain pattern or shape.

Mass-building structures are solid objects that withstand loads using only their weight. Examples of artificial building structures include sandcastles, dams, pyramids, and other man-made structures, whereas examples of natural mass structures include coral reefs, mountains, and other natural mass structures.


In conclusion, a building’s general design, stability, and durability are significantly influenced by the sort of building structure that was employed in its construction. The purpose, location, budget, and environmental issues of the project all play a role in the choice of building construction.

Now that you understand the types of structures, we hope that it won’t be difficult for you to decide the ideal structure for your next project. Just make sure you use the best building materials for your structure. 


What is building structure design?

The rigorous examination of the stability, strength, and stiffness of structures is known as structural design. The main goal of structural analysis and design is to create a structure that can withstand all applied loads without failing for the duration of that structure’s specified life.

What is the most important part of a building structure?

The important component of any structure is its foundation. The foundation of the building determines its strength and stability. No matter how sturdy the superstructure is, it cannot stand if the base is unstable.

What are the main types of buildings?

There are five different construction styles for buildings: fire-resistive, non-combustible, regular, heavy timber, and wood-framed.

What is the basic of structure building?

The base, floors, walls, beams, columns, roofs, stairs, etc. are the fundamental parts of a building construction. These components help to support, enclose, and safeguard the building structure.

What is the principle of structure?

As a result, one of the guiding principles of structures is that they should be built to resist external loads while remaining stationary. Statics is the study of the origins and consequences of stationary forces acting on stiff objects. A structure is referred to as a “static body” when it is at rest or in equilibrium.